Understanding the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act: A Comprehensive Guide
In this article, we take an in-depth look into the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). The law firm LexLords Canada Immigration Lawyers has drawn insights from its years of experience to dissect complex legal issues surrounding this act. The guide provides a comprehensive focus on application processes, federal classes, fees, and refugee protections.
IRPA: An Overview
The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) is a piece of Canadian Federal legislation that came into effect in 2002. It provides the legal framework for immigration and refugee protection in Canada.
- Application Filing: A person who intends to immigrate to Canada files their application to the immigration department.
- Application Assessment: The authorities assess the application based on several factors including qualification, age, language proficiency, and work experience.
- Decision: If the assessment is successful, the applicant is granted a visa.
- Economic Class: It includes applicants who can contribute to Canada’s economy. Sub-categories include Federal Skilled Workers, Federal Skilled Trades Workers, and Canadian Experience Class.
- Family Class: It allows Canadian citizens and permanent residents to sponsor their relatives to come to Canada.
- Refugee Class: This class protects people who cannot return to their home country due to a well-founded fear of persecution.
The application fees for immigration to Canada varies based on the category under which one applies. They range from CAD$75 for a study permit to CAD$1040 for an express entry application. Additional fees may apply for biometric data collection, medical examinations, language testing, and the Right of Permanent Residence Fee (RPRF).
The IRPA provides extensive protection for refugees. It recognizes that refugees may not be able to safely return to their home country because of a risk of persecution or threat to their life or liberty.
Case Laws and Judgments
Several landmark cases have shaped the interpretation and implementation of the IRPA throughout the years. Here are some noteworthy examples:
- Charkaoui v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2007 SCC 9: This case challenged the constitutionality of some refugee-related provisions in the Act. The Supreme Court found that specific sections were inconsistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
- Hinzman v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2007 FCA 171: This case involved an American soldier seeking refugee protection in Canada. The court upheld the decision of the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) that soldiers who voluntarily enroll in an army cannot claim refugee status purely on grounds of objection to a particular war.
- B010 v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2015 SCC 58: This ruling clarified the interpretation of “human smuggling” under the Act. The Supreme Court held that only those involved in organizing, abetting, or facilitating illegal immigration could be classified as human smugglers.
Understanding the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act is crucial for anyone contemplating immigration to Canada. The application process, federal classes, fees, and refugee protections all demand careful consideration. The landmark rulings help in understanding how the Act works in practice. It is also beneficial to seek legal advice from experienced immigration lawyers such as LexLords Canada Immigration Lawyers to navigate through this complex legal landscape.